A urinalysis (UA),also known as routine and microscopy (R&M),is an array of tests performed on urine,and one of the most common methods of medical diagnosis.The word is a portmanteau of the words urine and analysis.
The target parameters that can be measured or quantified in urinalysis include many substances and cells,as well as other properties,such as specific gravity.
A part of a urinalysis can be performed by using urine test strips,in which the test results can be read as color changes. Another method is light microscopy of urine samples.
Urine test results should always be interpreted using the reference range provided by the laboratory that performed the test,or using information provided by the test strip/device manufacturer.
When doctors order a urinalysis,they will request either a routine urinalysis or a routine and microscopy (R&M) urinalysis,with the difference being a routine urinalysis does not include microscopy or culture.
Urine test strip
A urine test strip can quantify:
Leukocytes-with presence in urine known as leukocyturia
Nitrite-with presence in urine known as nitrituria
Protein-with presence in urine known as proteinuria,albuminuria,or microalbuminuria
Blood-with presence in urine known as hematuria
The numbers and types of cells and/or material such as urinary casts can yield a great detail of information and may suggest a specific diagnosis.
Hematuria-associated with kidney stones,infections,tumors and other conditions
Pyuria-associated with urinary infections
Eosinophiluria-associated with allergic interstitial nephritis,atheroembolic disease
Red blood cell casts-associated with glomerulonephritis,vasculitis,or malignant hypertension
White blood cell casts-associated with acute interstitial nephritis,exudative glomerulonephritis,or severe pyelonephritis
(Heme) granular casts-associated with acute tubular necrosis
Crystalluria-associated with acute urate nephropathy (or acute uric acid nephropathy,AUAN)
Calcium oxalatin-associated with ethylene glycol
Waxy casts-associated with chronic renal disease